The earth precesses (wobbles like a spinning top) around the sun in a series of cycles.These cycles affect sunlight and hence long-term can form layers in rock.
Some claim Genesis in particular, and the Bible in general looks mythical from this standpoint.
A full discussion of the topic must therefore include the current scientific challenge to the OE concept.
Ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show annual layers (varves) and can be traced up to about 40,000 years before the layers become too thin due to compaction.
Similarly, annual lake sediments can be used to estimate relative age and conventional interpretation for the Green River varves suggests they have been formed over some 20 million years.
In some cases these astronomical cycles in rock appear to have been laid down over some 25 million years (and radiometric dating puts the absolute age of the rock at some 200 million years).
Dating Anomalies Here we outline a few dating methods or 'clocks' that present a dating anomaly when referenced to the widely accepted OE age of 4.6 billion years. At the outset we note C-14 cannot be used to directly date the earth for the simple reason that the unstable C-14 isotope has a half-life of just 5,730 years.
This challenge is mainly headed by Creationism which teaches a young-earth (YE) theory.
A young earth is considered to be typically just 6,000 years old since this fits the creation account and some dating deductions from Genesis.
But YE scientists point out some anomalies in relation to C-14 and a very old earth.
For instance, measurable amounts of C-14 have been found in fossil material, such as coal (traditionally Carboniferous period c300 mya).
These estimates give 4.4-4.5 billion years for moon rock, and 4.54 billion years for iron metreorites.